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Lesson keyword: best Comparatives and Superlatives VOCABULARY: as, bad, best, better, between, difference, favorite, good, least, less, more, most, than, what, which, worse, worst -The planet Earth is big. Saturn is bigger. Jupiter is the biggest. >> In the above sentences, the word "big" is an ADJECTIVE the word "bigger" is a COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVE and the word "biggest" is a SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES: >> When we use an adjective to compare two things, we add "er" to the end of the adjective if it is short, and we say "more" or "less" before the adjective if it is long. SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES: >> When a thing is unique because it is the most or least of a particular quality, we add "est" to the adjective if it is short, and we say "most" or "least" before the adjective if it is long. Before all superlative adjectives, we say "the" because a superlative describes something unique. ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE big bigger the biggest small smaller the smallest funny funnier the funniest stupid stupider the stupidest soft softer the softest complicated more complicated the most complicated complicated less complicated the least complicated expensive more expensive the most expensive expensive less expensive the least expensive difficult more difficult the most difficult difficult less difficult the least difficult >> There are two important exceptions: good better best bad worse worst >> Instead of saying "my most liked", or "my most preferred", we say my "favorite". SPELLING: >> If an adjective ends in "y", remove the "y" and add "er" or "est": silly sillier silliest muddy muddier muddiest heavy heavier heaviest ADVERBIAL PHRASES OF COMPARISON: -Which is bigger, the Indian Ocean or the Atlantic Ocean? The Atlantic Ocean is. or: The Atlantic Ocean is bigger than the Indian Ocean. This sentence has two parts: The Atlantic Ocean is MAIN CLAUSE bigger than the Indian Ocean. ADVERBIAL PHRASE OF COMPARISON >> Adverbial phrases of comparison use the following conjunctions: than, as, the + (comparative adjective). For example: -The Atlantic Ocean is... bigger THAN the Indian Ocean. not AS big AS the Pacific Ocean. THE CLOSEST ocean to Europe. >> When we use the word "difference", we also use the preposition "between": -What's the difference between a mountain and a hill? A hill is much smaller. -What is the difference between Italian wine and French wine? French wine is usually sweeter than Italian wine. -What's the difference between "pants" and "trousers"? "Pants" is American and "trousers" is British. >> We use the word "which" when asking to identify one thing among a small number of things. We use "what" when when asking to identify one thing among many many possible things: -What is your favorite TV show? (many, many possible TV shows) My favorite TV show is the news. -Which is older, Athens or Chicago? (two possible things) Athens is much much older than Chicago. -What is the best way to learn English? (many, many possible ways) By using easyenglish.com, of course! -Which is cheaper, a castle or a house or an apartment? (three possible things) An apartment is cheaper than a house or a castle. EXAMPLES: -Cloth shoes are less expensive than leather shoes. And plastic shoes are the least expensive of all. -Larry Smith is the worst actor in the world. No, he isn't, Claude Hopper is worse. -This wine is good, but San Giovese wine is better. -What's the tallest mountain in the world? Mt. Everest is the tallest mountain. -English grammar is the most complicated of all languages. No, it isn't, German grammar is more complicated. -What's the tallest mountain in the world? Mt. Everest is the tallest mountain. -Larry Smith is the worst actor in the world. No, he isn't, Claude Hopper is worse. -The Italian soccer team is as good as the Brazilian team. No it isn't. The Brazilian team is better. -Is Tokyo as expensive as New York? Yes, it is. Maybe Tokyo is more expensive. -German beer is the best beer in the world. Well, I think Dutch beer is better. -This is the coldest winter ever. -Arnold Schwarzenegger is the strongest man on earth. -The more you study, the more you learn. -The more you eat, the heavier you get. EXERCISES: >> There is an error in each sentence. Re-write the sentence correctly: 0. This is longest book in the library. This is the longest book in the library. 1. The Atlantic Ocean is not as big the Pacific Ocean. 2. Your hands are dirtyer than mine. 3. Albert Einstein is intelligenter than me. 4. Nobody is rich as the Queen of England. 5. This is the cheaper car on the market. 6. Who is fastest man in the world? 7. That restaurant is best in town. 8. Julia Roberts is more pretty than my grandmother. 9. The Ferrari is the faster car of all. 10. I am as taller as you. 11. Where are the more beautiful beaches in the world? 12. China is bigger India. 13. Athens is one of oldest cities in the world. 14. Who is the better lawyer in town? 15. Is ice heavier that water? >> Put the words in the correct order: 0. than food food is German Italian better Italian food is better than German food. 16. hotel hotel this the than last cleaner is 17. is Boston city older or Rome which the? 18. not hot Casablanca is as Paris as 19. in tallest world the Mt. Everest mountain is the 20. important are more politics education than ? >> Answer the following questions: 0. Who is the best worker in the company? Mr. Suzuki is the best worker. 21. Is the Danube River as big as the Amazon River? 22. Which is more fun, swimming or playing tennis? 23. Is skiing more difficult than walking? 24. Which is more unhealthy, smoking or drinking? 25. What is the most populated country in the world? 26. What is the best TV show? >> Ask questions for the following answers: 0. Sunrise is the most beautiful time of day. When is the most beautiful time of day? 27. Ms. Sanchez is the best teacher. 28. Michael is stupider than Max. 29. No, Cuba is smaller than Madagascar. 30. No, geometry is not as difficult as algebra. 31. No, I am older than Rita. 32. Argentina is colder than Panama. 33. Brazil is bigger than Peru. 34. 10:00 is later than 8:00. 35. Mountain climbing is more dangerous than reading. POSSIBLE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS: 1. The Atlantic Ocean is not as big as the Pacific Ocean. 2. Your hands are dirtier than mine. 3. Albert Einstein is more intelligent than me. 4. Nobody is as rich as the Queen of England. 5. This is the cheapest car on the market. 6. Who is the fastest man in the world? 7. That restaurant is the best in town. 8. Julia Roberts is prettier than my grandmother. 9. The Ferrari is the fastest car of all. 10. I am as tall as you. 11. Where are the most beautiful beaches in the world? 12. China is bigger than India. 13. Athens is one of the oldest cities in the world. 14. Who is the best lawyer in town? 15. Is ice heavier than water? 16. This hotel is cleaner than the last hotel. 17. Which is the older city, Boston or Rome? 18. Paris is not as hot as Casablanca. 19. Mt. Everest is the tallest mountain in the world. 20. Are politics more important than education? 21. No, it isn't. The Amazon is bigger. 22. Swimming is more fun than playing tennis. 23. Yes, skiing is more difficult than walking. 24. Smoking is more unhealthy than drinking. 25. China is the most populated country in the world. 26. The best TV show is "Star Trek". 27. Who is the best teacher in the school? 28. Who is stupider, Max or Michael? 29. Is Cuba bigger than Madagascar? 30. Is geometry more difficult than algebra? 31. Is Rita older than you? 32. Which is colder, Panama or Argentina? 33. Which is bigger, Brazil or Peru? 34. Which is later, 8:00 or 10:00? 35. Which is more dangerous, mountain climbing or reading?